Demand and Supply Explained- Macro Topic 1.4 (Micro Topic 2.1)


Hey! How are you doing Econ students? This is Mr. Clifford, welcome to AC/DC Econ. Right now we’re going to talk about demand, and since demand has to do with buyers and consumers, I’m going to explain it all consuming this gallon of milk. So here we go, let’s start it out. That first taste of milk is just wonderful, right? Cold, refreshing. The first thing you have to understand about demand is the law of demand, which says that there’s an inverse relationship between price and quantity demanded. That means when the price goes down, the quantity demanded increases. And if the price goes down, the quantity demanded goes up again. So take a look at this demand schedule. As you can see, when the price goes down, the quantity demanded goes up. When the price goes down to four, three, two, and one, the quantity demanded increases. Now when you plot these points, you’re gonna get a demand curve, which looks like this. It’s a downward sloping curve showing the law of demand. Now there are three reasons why the demand curve is downwards sloping. It’s the reason for the law of demand, it’s the substitution effect, the income effect, and the law of diminishing marginal utility. Substitution effect says price goes down for milk, people are going to buy more milk, because they’re going to move away from other products that are now more relatively expensive. So instead of buying juice, people are going to turn around and go buy more milk. Now that goes the other way, when the price goes up for milk the quality demand for milks going to decrease. Because people are going to move away from the milk and go find a different substitute product. I wish I could find a substitute product, now the income effect says that when the price goes down people buy more milk, because their purchasing power has increased. So if you go to the store, and you find out that milk is on sale and it only costs one dollar for a gallon of milk, you’re going to buy more because you can buy more. Now you can buy with each dollar has increased, and of course it goes the other way. If the price goes up for milk, people are going to stop buying milk, because their purchasing power has decreased. Each dollar gets them less milk, and the third reason for the law of demand is something called the law of diminishing marginal utility. Remember utility is satisfaction and marginal is additional. So this is the law of decreasing additional satisfaction. The law says, as you consume anything, like milk, the additional satisfaction you’re going to get, is going to start to eventually decrease, which is exactly what’s going on right here. That very first sip was super refreshing, but that last one not so much. Now this law applies to somebody drinking sips of milk, but it also applies to purchasing gallons of milk. That very first gallon of milk you get for your family, is awesome because it gives you a lot of satisfaction. You can have your milk and cookies, you can eat your cereal. Your second gallon of milk gives you some utility. The third gives you some utility, but the law says eventually, each additional gallon of milk that you consume is going to give you less and less additional utility. This concept explains the law of demand, and the shape of the demand curve because they get people to buy more quantity of milk. The price has to go lower, because they get less and less additional satisfaction from each gallon of milk. Its getting warm. Its getting warm. So a change in price goes along the demand curve, but if something else other than price changes it’ll actually shift the demand. For example, let’s say a study comes out that says milk causes baldness, that would cause the entire demand curve to shift left. At every single price people are going to buy less, and so the curve shifts to the left. That’s called a decrease in demand, the opposite is an increase in demand, and so at every single price people want to buy more. So the demand curve shifts to the right. Now theirs five shifter’s, or determinants of demand. These are the things that cause the demand curve to shift. The first shiftier of demand is taste and preferences. For example, what if a new study comes out that says if kids have milk in the morning before going to school, do better at school and they’re smarter?Well, that would increase the demand, the demand curve would shift to the right. Another shifter would be the number of consumers. All of a sudden new customers come into town, that’s going to increase the demand for milk. Another shifter is the price of related goods substitutes and complements. For example almond milk and cows milk are substitutes for each other. That’s a bad idea. So if the price goes up for almond milk, and it’s more expensive to buy this then the demands going to increase for cows. If the price goes down for almond milk that means people are going to move away from buying cows milk and buy more almond milk. So the demand for cows milk will fall, of course there’s also complements. So when the price of cereal falls, is going to increase the demand for milk. Now the next shifter is income. Income is a little tricky because it depends on the type of product there’s normal goods and inferior goods. So let’s say that milk was a normal good. This means when there’s an increase in income the demands going to increase. When there’s a decrease in income the demands going to decrease. An inferior good is just the opposite, when there’s an increase in incomes the demand falls, and when there’s a decrease in incomes the demand will go up. So whenever you see a question that involves income, make sure to read the question carefully to find out if it’s a normal good or an inferior good. The last shifter of demand is a change in expectations. So for example, if you think the price of milk is going to decrease next week you’re going to buy less today because the demand will decrease. If you think the price is going to increase next week you’re actually going to buy a whole not more today. So that’s going to increase the demand, now it’s time to cover a super important detail that you have to watch out for. It’s the difference between a change in quantity demanded, and change in demand. So look at this graph for milk, right now you see three points. A, B, and C, and there’s two ways to go from ten to twenty units, movement from A to B along the demand curve is a change in quantity demand. So when the price goes down from three dollars to two dollars, the quantity demanded goes up from ten to twenty. Now A to C is a change in demand, price doesn’t change, price stayed at three but people decided to buy more, why? Well because the five shifter’s, like taste and preferences that people prefer and want more milk then the entire demand curve will shift to the right. At that same three dollar price people want more so that could change the demand. It’s a change in demand. So I got a question for you, What happens to the demand for a product when the price goes down? Oh, gosh this is a bad idea! So the answer is nothing. When the price goes down demand stays exactly the same. Prices causes the quantity demanded to change, the only thing that changes quantity demanded is the change in price, and the only thing that changes demand is one of the five shifter’s of demand. Oh, man I think I’m lactose intolerant. I need those Cheerios. We’re good. We’re good. And we’re done. Make sure to take a look at the next video which explains supply, the laws of supply and the shifter’s of the supply curve. Now don’t forget to subscribe or leave a comment bellow, alright? Until next time.

100 thoughts on “Demand and Supply Explained- Macro Topic 1.4 (Micro Topic 2.1)

  1. I wish all teachers had the same enthusiasm and passion for teaching as you. It makes it easier for us students to understand and comprehend the material. I can tell you love economics and love teaching students about it. I have a macroeconomics exam coming up shortly and your concise videos have taught me more about economics than my professor has in 3 weeks of 75 minute lectures. Please continue to do what you are doing. I love it.

  2. Everyone please like a share and subscribe to his videos! It helps keep people like this to keep making videos! I watched all his videos for my microeconomics last semester and am now watching them all this semester for macroeconomics. So helpful! Thank you

  3. love me clifford senpai

    fr ur da goat im still failing but its from my horrible sleep schheeduellle and the relation of that to my absences.

    keep killin it

  4. 4:11 how does a fall in the price of complementary good INCREASE the demand of the good? shouldn't it be decreasing?

  5. Thanks a lot for this video although you did fail to explain the exceptions of law of demand like giffen goods or commodities used as a status symbol e.t.c.

  6. I have to know economy for my CSET test. This is so much better than trying to read dry facts straight through. Thank you for explaining it so well that I could actually explain to someone else. I appreciate your work.

  7. Do you perhaps know someone on YouTube that you can refer who does videos as good as you but for Management Accounting? You literally saved my life with Economics, wondering if you can do the same with Management Accounting ๐Ÿ™

  8. Over drinking milk just for us to understand better n guess what? We did๐Ÿ˜Š for free oohh thank you!!

  9. for years i've been having a problem with this, but today it took a 6:42 video to solve a three year problem. wow thanks….

  10. Here's the Ultimate Review Guide for 2018-19: https://www.dropbox.com/s/b1zvl6gyay9fnvv/Clifford%27s%20Ultimate%20Review%20AP%20ECON.pdf?dl=0

  11. wow I understand better now, can you please explain the elasticity topic more the calculations are still confusing me because some numbers I wouldn't even understand where they come from, you are such a goooood teacher

  12. In the first semester of business school I dropped my microeconomics course because I new I wouldn't pass and I understood nothing, the semester after that I took it again with a different professor and passed with a D, these two videos of yours explaining supply and demand have taught me more than those two professors.

    Oddly enough I passed my macroeconomics course with an A+ ๐Ÿ˜€

  13. respect for drinking all that pus and up to 10% of urine and being able to teach that good. I wasn't drinking any milk but nearly had to vomit watching this. Maybe get some Information on Milk Supply ๐Ÿ˜€

  14. IT is so good, but if you can speak a little bit slower, that will be better for me to understand

  15. Watching this video made me kinda think whether I should go to school or be home-schooled by Sir Clifford

  16. I still have a question tho. I still didnโ€™t fully grasp the concepts of this video.Why doesnโ€™t demand curve shift from left to right during increase in quantity demanded for a commodity? When price falls,quantity demanded increases and so does the demand(so the demand curve will shift from the left to the right) but it doesnโ€™t

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