What’s New in WCAG2.1 – AbilityNet webinar, 27 March 2018


– Okay. So, welcome everybody. This is an AbilityNet webinar, WCAG 2.1: What’s New, and we’re going to talk through some of the changes in WCAG 2.1. Alladin is here to tell
you more about the changes and we’re also gonna be getting your questions and
answers as we go through to make sure that we share information and knowledge as much as possible. So I’m Mark Walker. I’m the Head of Marketing
& Communications. I host our AbilityNet
webinars and you can see here Alladin who’s in our London office, and is a Senior Accessibility
and Usability Consultant. Hi Alladin. – Hi everyone. – Hi there. Actually Alladin could
you just tell me briefly, what sort of work are you
working on at the moment, which clients are you working with, just so that we can know
something about what you do. – Yes, of course. So, hi, my name is Alladin and I work as an Accessibility Team at AbilityNet, it’s been few years now. Generally I’m involved in all of the accessibility processes
within the company, so starting from assessing the current status of the client’s projects, ranging from banking
applications, to websites, to even stand-alone applications, and then giving advice basically on how to make them as
accessible as possible and assessing as well their internal accessibility
guidelines documents for those clients who would
like to go even more than WCAG. Sometimes also provide
trainings for their teams, either developers, designers, or UX architectures. Yes, that’s generally what I do. – Great. Which clients are you
working on this week? Just so people get a sense of the sorts of what you’re doing. – Okay. Most of my time either with HSBC, yeah, so, HSBC is one of my main clients, but I get to work with Barclays, especially with accreditation
for their three apps, which is the Pingit, the BnB, and MyBCN. So I’ve worked for awhile with their accreditation of their applications and they’ll technologies
sent (mumbles), yeah. – Great, thank you. So today what we’re gonna
do, in terms of the agenda, we’ve got about 30 minutes worth of presentation, and plenty of time for
you to ask some questions. You’ll be able to ask questions
as we go along as well. We’re assuming that people
who sign up to an event with the words WCAG in it have
some idea about what WCAG is, but we don’t want to assume
that everybody knows. So what I wanna do first
is check the software and ask you to tell me what
best describes your role. So hopefully you should
see a poll coming up now which asks you to tell us who you are. This isn’t 100% accessible, this poll. So if you you aren’t able to
see it or interact with it, if you can just, hold on a moment, I can
tell you who’s here, and you’ll be able to see whether you’re in the right company, but this is the easiest way
for us to just make sure we pitch the information
at the right level. So I can see that 66%,
70% of you have voted. If you could quickly drop
in your feedback on that, that would be helpful. The majority of people
are saying that they’re an accessibility specialist, 33% of you. We’ve got about 70 people on the call, so that’s some 25 people, maybe 30 people who
are accessibility specialists and most of you are
involved in digital projects or are part of a digital team. It mentions using the chat
box or the questions box. Let me know if there’s anything in particular about your role. You work in academic library, support users
with assistive technology. I’m a content editor. I’m not an accessibility specialist, but I focus on accessibility
for older adults. That’s interesting. So a good mix of people, as you can see. I’ll just publish that
for you so you can see the shared results briefly. You’ll see that majority
of people, as I said, are accessibility specialists. So I think what we’ll do, Alladin, is we’ll assume most
people do know what the content guidelines are.
– WCAG. – Obviously, we’ll go over
that relatively quickly. For anyone who doesn’t, there
are some links at the end, references, and please do feel free
to ask any questions as we go along just so
that you don’t feel like we’re missing out on the
level of detail that you need. So we’re gonna look at the WCAG 2.1. Just basically, what Alladin has done is prepared a list of the changes that have been made according to the numerical order that they run through in the guidelines. So as we go through there,
there’s lots of detail, but as I say, there’s also a chance to
ask questions as we go along or to wait until the end, and then ask any questions about any more general principles about WCAG 2.1. So the next think that we’re gonna tell you about is AbilityNet because you may not know how much we do. We’re well known for
our accessibility work, but we do lots of other things as well. We’re a UK charity. We help older people and
people with disabilities achieve their goals at home, at work, and in education and our
primary way of doing that is to help them with their technology. We do lots of accessibility
testing and consultancy. Alladin mentioned Lloyds, HSBC, Barclays. We work with other banks,
and other finance sectors, but we also work with retailers,
academic organisations, charities and we have a team of consultants who are providing services
on an ongoing basis, and we also provide
training and other support and we run TechShare Pro, which is big conference
that runs in November, which is the largest accessibility
event I think in Europe, this last year, when we did it in 2017. So that’s a real big area for us. The other area is we help people on a one-to-one basis with their technology. We do assessments in the workplace, and for education and at home, making sure that disabled people have access to the right technology, but also helping them set
it up in the way they need. We have a network of volunteers who can provide people with support in their homes and we also have a lot of
free resources on our website, and in particular My Computer My Way, which provides information about all the adjustments you can make to your computer, making text larger on different platforms, all technologies and
all sort of adjustments. It’s our 20th birthday as well
is the other thing to say, so we’ve been around a long time and we have got lots of free resources and expertise around accessibility. These webinars are a good
way for us to share that knowledge and to connect with
other people in the industry. So just before we go any further, I just wanna make sure that you know or that we know how much
you know about WCAG. So there’s another poll here. If you could just tell us whether
you’re familiar with WCAG. I’ve deliberately left it
as a acronym, not as a test, but just so that we know that you have the right sort of level
of knowledge for us to pitch. 50, 60, 70, well, nearly all of you have voted, and 60% of you are saying
that you’re familiar with it. 10% don’t know what it is, so we will make sure that we mention very clearly what we’re talking about and then I think 30% of
you, not surprisingly, would like to know more. I sort of know what it is. I think that’s the
level we were expecting, that you clearly know what it is. Mostly, a few of you need a bit of help to understand a bit more about it, and then some are new to it completely. So we’ll definitely pitch at that level. So, Alladin, over to you. We’re gonna run through your slides. I’m just gonna swap to
you as the the presenter. But as we’re going along, if you could, oh, I can’t find you while it’s there. If you have any questions,
please just let me know, and I’ll be hosting this. If you have questions, drop them in, and I’ll try and pick
them up so that Alladin doesn’t keep track of
those at the same time. – Mark, you can see my screen now? – Yeah, I can see that. It’s cool. – Good. – So just before you start, just to let you know that
we’re recording the webinar and that will be available
afterwards as well to people and a sharable link will
be available to share it with colleagues if you want to. – Hi, everyone. Thank you very much for
joining today for this webinar. So we’re going to talk about WCAG 2.1. But before I jump into WCAG 2.1, we just want to do an overview about
web accessibility in general for those who don’t know
what web accessibility is. So web accessibility is
important for many reasons. So it’s actually the ethical thing, it’s the right thing to do, it’s socially important commercially, and it’s important as well
from legal point of view. So web accessibility, it means making the web accessible to all disabled groups of users. So we have four main groups
of vision impairments, hearing impairments, motor impairments, and cognitive impairments. So you can see here the definition from the World Web Consortium, the meaning of web accessibility that people with disability can use the web. So it also means that people not can, the user, they can perceive, they can
understand, they can navigate, and also they can interact with the Web. So that means they have access to a web page or an application as much as a user without a disability has. To encourage this, they have come up with guidelines. So these guidelines, Web Content
Accessibility Guidelines, so they’re usually abbreviated as WCAG. The first version of WCAG came, released in 1991, I believe it was in May, and it had 14 guidelines
and 64 checkpoints. Then in 2008, I believe it was December 2008, it was updated, so we have WCAG 2.0, which is the version currently still used across the world for compliance. It has four principles. These principle should work, (mumbles) or in an application
should be perceivable, alterable, and understandable, and robust, and 12 guidelines and 61 success criteria. So things like perceivable. For example, videos should have captions or non-text content like images
should have alternative text. Operable, things like everything should be keyboard accessible for
keyboard-only users, and also for screen
users who use a keyboard. Understandable, so you have to present
users of error suggestions and error identification
mechanism as well. Robust, it means other code is
implemented correctly so that screen readers
can interact with it. Then, after about, I think in 2013, the 2.1 work started, but it wasn’t set in stone
until 2017, I believe, where they thought that the Web changed and now
we have mobile technology and the mobile technology
was not so advanced in 2008. So a new set of criteria
has been set since 2017 with 2.1 and it’s currently
still being worked on. So initially there were about 60 proposed criteria, and then they were reduced to 28, and currently we have about 17 criteria. The latest recommendation draught was released end of January this year, so the final draught is due I think in May, in June, June this year, yeah, 2018. So hopefully, by then you’ll have the
final version of the 2.1. – Alladin, can I just ask a question ’cause I’ve realised it wasn’t on that slide. Could you just very briefly
tell us about A, AA, and AAA ’cause those are things that come up as well around this, aren’t they?
– Yes, of course. – It’s all alongside those guidelines. – Yes, of course. So in addition to the four guidelines, the level of criteria
has been divided into single A, AA, AAA. Usually most of the companies and most of the organisation comply with AA. It’s just the legal, usually
the legal requirement. AAA is actually very good to go to, but sometimes it’s not
possible to comply with. So as we go through, you’ll see what level the success criteria is at. So we’ll go through these in a minute. – Yeah, I’m sorry, and I’ve got a couple other questions, just simple ones.
– Sure. – So just to clarify, that there are 17 new success criteria, does that mean that there are now, and 61 in the previous one, so there are now 78 success criteria, is that how it works?
– Yes. Yes, so unless this number’s
not reduced any further, the 17, because it might be reduced from now until the date of release, then they will added to
the previous one of 2.0, to 2.0, yeah WCAG 2.0. – Okay, and somebody’s
question, which seems fair, is how do you remember all 78 criteria? So–
– Yeah. – In the guidelines, presumably. – Yeah, that’s why we can do, sometimes most clients do
not want all this technical. Because of the way that WCAG
is written is very technical, you need to navigate across many pages just to get the gist of what’s required. So there’s a lot of vagueness
in all of the success criteria and so there is also a lot of areas of debate where people interpret the success criteria in different ways. So that’s why sometimes it’s
a good idea to discuss it in forums and take opinions wat-smen-do. So, yes, there are some big areas and
there is also some overlap. Because when WCAG wants
to put a success criteria, it has to go through certain things. So it has to be testable, also it has to be applied to all content, it has to be also applied
across different technology, and most importantly, it
has to be implementable. So if you cannot implement it, then, that’s why WCAG sometimes overlook the accessibility guidelines
which affect user, the cognitive impairments ’cause it’s not usually testable the whole time and because more users
research needed in that area. Hopefully, WCAG 3.0, it’s going to be more
advanced in this regard, yeah. Any more questions?
– Thank you. So many other questions are coming up, I know they’re gonna be
answered as we go along. If they’re not, then we can publish those at the end ’cause a little flurry came in just then. So, and off you go.
– Sure. So, yeah. In case you’re worried about
2.1 for your organisation, it will follow the same module
as WCAG 2.0, so don’t worry. We have the four principles,
and then you have the A, the AA, and AAA level. You just add these success criteria into the previous one that
you used in WCAG 2.0. Actually, the reason the 2.1
was introduced, as I said, is because mobile technology
has become more advanced and it has more cognitive disabilities related to gaps, and also some more success
criteria related to low vision. So it addresses these three main areas. As we go through them, I will explain which one
for under which area. Sites that conform to 2.1
will meet the requirement of any policy that refer to 2.0. I don’t think most organisation will worry about this in the near future, but it’s a good idea
to start working ahead because now you have a rough estimation of the success criteria that’s going to be
implemented in WCAG 2.1. So it’s good idea to start
working on it from now. So the first success
criteria is related to identity common purpose. So this falls under the AA, so it’s still Euro update to consider this criteria when
implemented to your websites. So it’s basically, it relates to the capacity
to support personalization. What does it mean? It means like a field that which should be
programmatically determined. Why is that? Because usually assistive technology identify… It’s kind of closed to
neer-muh-rul value from WCAG 2.0, but you should add as more context to it. For example, you hit a button, so you should provide more icons that like saying help, this button for presenting a help dialogue
or something like that. Also for auto-complete, they can be provided to identify
common things for users who cannot remember by
necessity certain symbols or terms. Do you have any questions about this point or should I move on? – No, keep going. I’ll butt in if I get any questions. – Yes, sir. Reflow, so this is the second criteria. Reflow. It means that the content can be viewed with a width equivalent of 320 pixels. This is the width or 256, this is the length, without having to cross two-dimensionally. This is intended for
users with low vision. You don’t have to do it yourself, but you’ll have to
ensure that your content can be customised to these values. So usually this is done by using CSS, so you shouldn’t make it fixed. This is with their, of course there are
exceptions with this one. So the exception is where this view is a must. For example you want to view a map or you want to view a data table, there are exceptions to this checkpoint. The graphic contrast, this
follows from WCAG 2.0, which we have the contrast of the text. The graphic contrast means that any buttons, or any form labels, any symbols or icons
that convey information should also have a
sufficient colour contrast. Previously, only text was applied
regarding this checkpoint, but now you have to
include all these as well. So if you have a button, you wanna show that the borders of these buttons have colour
contrast of three to one against the colour of the
rest of the page so that, also, usually you’ll find what do you call tooltip
activation elements. They’re a symbol like a small I. So you want to consider
that this small I actually, which is next to the label, has this sufficient colour contrast. There are also exceptions. If you have logos, if you have flags, the same applies to WCAG 2.0. If you have graphics that cannot
be presented any other way, scenes with people, real life, they’re all exceptions. It just important icons or
buttons that convey information. Also, graphs, if you have a graph line, you should also show that these lines have a sufficient colour contrast. – Can I just pick something, Alladin? I’ve got a question about
visible-focus contrast. So when you identify visible focus, did you mean that contrast
is included within that guideline? – Visible focus is, I think this one is
more about the graphic. So if there’s a visible focus on, yeah, so I don’t think
it’s covered in this one, but I’m happy to investigate more. Usually visible focus, if it’s faint, I report it as an additional issue. So it’s not WCAG-related issue, but I hope it’s going
to be covered as well because here it’s covered as a graphics. So visible focus is not kind of a graphic. It has to do with keyboard,
visible focus, yeah. – Okay, thank you. – All right. So the text spacing, again, as an author, you don’t
have to worry about this. All you need to do is just
to ensure that your content, when it’s customised to these points, it doesn’t get overlap,
it does not get cut off, or sometimes you have
a fixed text where you actually you cannot increase
or decrease the size, so this is intended for users with low vision and also dyslexia, so you want to ensure
that your functionality, also your content is not
lost under these conditions, that the line spacing at least is 1.5 times the font size, and the spacing between
the paragraph needs to be at these two times the font size, and the letter spacing,
0.12 time the font size, and the word spacing is 0.16 times. So as long as you allow your content to be customised to these points, then you will meet this success criteria. – Just to point out the last slide, I’m just getting a few
questions coming in. I’ll leave those
questions now till the end ’cause we’re gonna keep
going on to other ones. But their questions about
contrast and colours and stuff, we’ll come back. There’s a couple in there
that people have asked, so I’ll come back to that. – Sure, yeah. Content on hover or focus. This falls under AA. So this is mainly refers to a small pop-up that appears
when you hover over a button. As you can see, the example
here, the refresh button, it just ensure that when
this pop-up appears, it doesn’t cover the trigger. Also it ensures that you
can dismiss it easily and ensure that you have enough time to read the content of this pop up because some users with
cognitive disabilities or other users need more time to read or navigate the content as well. So meeting the success
criteria is usually using pseudo-classes of focus. If you don’t have a tooltip, it’s good to implement
it as a rule, tooltip, and then this criteria can be taken care of if you implement it the right way. Character keyboard shortcuts. So this mainly affects users who use assistive technology with speech input. So for example if you’re using
Dragon Naturally Speaking or any technology, that speech-to-text, if you don’t provide the mechanism or turning off the shortcuts
that you utilise on your website or remap
them or to customise them, then if the software’s user, the voice recognition, if they say the wrong word, then it could do something
which they don’t wanna do. For example, if they have a shortcut
for archiving email with R, and then they want to change this and someone says R, then they don’t want that action to be implemented if you add the mechanism of disabling it. Yes, so that’s the character key shortcuts. Label in name. It also affects mainly users of voice recognition or
speech-input technologies. It means, in a nutshell, that the visible focus should match the heading element or the header label. It’s also, for example if you have a close button and you meant it as an X, and then if it doesn’t
have a heading label that reflects the function of this button, then people will not be able to close it because their assistive technology will not be able to recognise this button. Pointer gestures. This is common in mobile devices. (clears throat) When you have complex gestures, I wanna think of an example. Sometimes you see, back in apps, you have your accounts, and then you swipe right, as you swipe right you get the menu, but this gesture is
usually not translated. So you should have a way
of making these gesture being able to implemented with a single tap. I think another example is you have dragging. You can also drag. As a user, you want to drag something
from a place to place as well. If you want zim, zoom pinch, sorry, with two fingers, so usually screen reader
users cannot do that and other users as well cannot do that. So what you would do is just
to include a plus and a minus to increase or decrease the size instead of having multiple gestures. Pointer cancellation. This has to do with the
down-event and the appearance. So when a user presses down,
that’s called the down-event, and that should not trigger the function. So when you do the down-event, it shouldn’t trigger the function until they do the the up-event. But if the function is
triggered in the down-event, in this case, there should be a mechanism
to cancel or undo this. So if the down-event is triggering a process or a function, then users should be presented
with a way of cancelling it. Of course there are exceptions. If there is, for example (clears throat), excuse me (coughs), if you have a piano application, then this is important to have as well. – Are you okay (chuckles)? – Yeah, sorry. I’m not feeling well because of the, I think a few days now, so I’m fine. (clears throat)
– Okay. – (mumbles) (coughs) (clears throat) Motion actuation. (coughs) (clears throat) Excuse me. (coughs) (clears throat) So motion actuation is again
related to motion devices, mainly (clears throat) (coughs) sorry (chuckles). So not all users are able
to move or shake or tilt their devices to interact
with it (sniffles) because of dexterity disabilities. So in this case, there should be other means of interacting or doing the same operation with a different way or method. One I can think, for example, even sometimes when you carry your iOS device (clears throat), if you shake an app, you can get all the very lookup and all the information about the app. This is what it means by, if you have functionality like that, you should provide another way of doing the
same thing (clears throat). The next one is orientation. So you have two kind of orientations. You have the landscape orientation, you have the portrait orientation. Again not all user are able
to (coughs) (clears throat), use both orientations, so your application should support both. (clears throat) Of course there are exceptions to that. For example if you have a bank check, yet it’s understandable, or if you’re in application, it’s also understandable that you have the orientation fixed. So, as a general rule, if possible, all application should
support both orientations. (clears throat) The next one is status change. So users need to be aware of any important changes that happen within the page. So if, for example, you add an item to your basket, you might see it visually, but for security, users or users with
cognitive disabilities, they may not be aware of it. For example, you are in a search page (clears throat) and you type in the search something you want to search for, and then you’re presented
with the results, so you should have feedback that, for example, 15 results showing. That’s what is meant
by this status changes. So things you can implement is using alerts or live regions, so. We also have the AAA criteria. From what I remember, target size used to be in (coughs), (clears throat) excuse me (coughs), the target size criteria
are, from what I remember, was with AA, but they seemed to have moved it to AAA. It just says that the target
size has to be 44 by 44 pixels, unless the target can be
accessible by another means. So if you have means by accessing the same target, then it doesn’t have to be this. Identify purpose as well, so you identify the purpose, it’s closely related to the name, role, value, but
it’s not exactly the same. You have timeouts (clears
throat) that specifies that user should have 20 hours, I believe, when they fill in a form. For example, let’s say they’re doing
an e-commerce purchase, they should have a time of 20 hours to finish this without being timeout. Animation from interactions. So this is not exactly related to the pause, stop, and hide from WCAG 2.0. So that one is related
when you land on a page, that page should not trigger something, which is animation. But this one, when you are within the page and you move or scroll down the page, there shouldn’t be any changes. If there are changes on this
page in the form of animation, users should have the opportunity to switch them off or to pause them. Concurrent input mechanisms. It just specifies that there should be more than one way for input. Input mechanism should be device-agnostic. So for example if you’re using a touch screen and then
you plug in a keyboard, it shouldn’t make a problem. You should be able to
work both of them as well. So this is a summary of the success criteria that falls under AAA. So there are additional resources. So the latest candidate recommendation were released in January this year, and then you have discussions and feedback on GitHub if you just wanna see what discussions are going on. If you want a quick reference to WCAG 2.0, actually they put even WCAG 2.1 there, you will see the word new under each new candidate criteria. Questions, I guess there
are questions, so that’s it. – Yeah, thank you. Do you wanna get a
glass of water, Alladin? – Yes, please. Thank you very much (chuckles). – Do that quickly, and then we’ll come back. So there’s been quite
a few question that had been dropped in as
we’ve been getting them. So I’m just gonna go back across these
(Alladin coughing) and go through them one at a time. I’m also just gonna grab back the controls so that I can jump to the right slide if we need to just to clarify anything whilst Alladin sorts himself out with the, there we go.
(door slamming) So (clears throat) – Hello, sorry for that (chuckles). – You all right? – Yes, I’m good now, much better. – Okay, so, I’m just gonna run through
these in order at the moment and then it may be helpful to jump across to the right slide. So I just grabbed the slides
just to see if we might jump in to say if it isn’t
necessary to clarify anything, it possibly isn’t, but I’ll leave that resource up as well. The first thing I would say is that there’s a mix of questions in here. Some people are obviously new to WCAG and are just trying to sort of clarify some of the differences between, there’s a couple of questions
in here, for example, between AA and AAA and
what that might mean and is AA a legal requirement? So we’ll come back to those
in the second ’cause I think the point about this session is that we’re very much into territory here where this is quite a complicated
set of guidelines anyway. As Aladdin said, one of the primary things that you can see running through is the switch to the much wider adoption of mobile, and therefore some of the need to clarify some of the guidelines
that existed and to add to those because of the
widespread use of mobile. So that’s why there is this shift into some of the dramatic change. It’s simply adding
detail and adding context to some of the questions that are gonna crop up as you’re testing sites. So hopefully that gives us a sort of a, for those of you who are new to WCAG, it gives you an insight into it, but it certainly isn’t intended to be sort of an introduction
to WCAG in any detail. Maybe we need to do that
separately on another webinar. But equally the resources
that we have up here, you’ll quickly see that there’s
lots of detail in there. You run through a whole series of text and guidelines that are set up. They get referred to in the reports that we do when we test
sites for accessibility. We refer back to the guidelines by using a particular number. So these are very structured,
detailed set of guidelines, and hence, when Alladin’s
going through these, he’s looking at the specific
changes that have been made. So just for those of you that
weren’t clear about that, that’s where it all comes from. So I’m just gonna go through
the more detailed ones. Are there changes to colour contrast requirements? You mentioned colour contrast, but some combinations that passed the checks aren’t quite adequate. It’s possibly an ageing issue due to the yellowing of the lens, but I don’t think there’s any requirements that have changed for colour contrast. Its just applied it to new elements. That’s right, isn’t it? – Exactly, so they just applied it
to the non-text elements. Other than that, it follows exactly the same requirements from the WCAG 2.0. – Yeah, and you mentioned three to one, I think at some point,
(Alladin coughing) the contrast ratio
– Yes, for buttons and things like that. But for text, it remains
the same, unless it’s bold. So it’s 4.5 to, yeah, to one. – Okay, great. – Yeah. – Do you need, there’s this clarify the requirements for disabled elements like
form button that aren’t active until a required
field is filled in. So I guess that’s to do
with interactive forms. – From WCAG 2.0 it was not required. For any disabled element, it’s fine if it doesn’t
pass the colour contrast. I suppose it’s still going
to be the same for WCAG 2.1. But it’s something good to have if you wanna go the extra mile and then make the disabled
button color-contrast compliant, then go ahead, but it’s not a WCAG requirement. – But there’s an
interesting question here. How do you propose to
test the text spacing? I don’t know whether you already have that going into the automated test. So where are they gonna do that manually? – This has to do mainly with users who uses assistive technology to increase the text size. So I suggest that you increase the text for say 200%, 400%, and see if there is any overlap, anything (background noise drowns out other sounds) so it has to do with users
who usually have low vision or they want specific customization for their desktop applications. That’s the main reason for that, so. – Okay, thank you. The character key shortcuts, doesn’t that only apply
to two or more characters? I guess it is one character, the letter R. Actually somebody suggested
they think it’s only for two. – It also applies to numeric values. It’s gonna apply to symbols as well, so it’s a kind of a variety as well, yeah. – Okay. – So you should just provide, you don’t have to worry about it as long as users have the ability to change these shortcuts. – Great, thank you. So, and this is a point of
clarification from someone, WCAG seems to cover web design and content design requirements. Are there content-design-only guidelines? I think the guidelines are intended to cover content and design, aren’t they, available–
– Yes, for example, yeah so if you see the non-graphic colour contrast, that’s more of a design than content. – Right. I think there’s a typo
in your slide (chuckles). I suppose it is as well. You said that live religions
instead of live regions. – Yeah, it is regions. – Could you just explain
what a live region is? – Yes. A live region is a reason that, for example if you have a stock market up and down areas, let’s say it’s going up, or 2%, and then the next minute
it goes down by 2%, so that’s a live region. The content is constantly changing. – Okay. I think this is a plea for help. Is WCAG accessible? Accessibility is already
complicated to do properly. How does WCAG 2.1 address this issue? I mean is there any intention within the World Wide Web Consortium to make the guidelines more accessible, by which I would generally read about how complicated they are or how much of the jargon they incorporate. I mean has any consideration being made about that to make it more… – Yeah, I’m not really aware of that. I think they kind of put the broader, it’s like they’re like kind of law makers, and then you have to
interpret these things, depending on your organisation, and make it. So I think the best thing is, from WCAG, is to try to take what
they have and interpret it according to your own business, and then work from there because they just give you a broad idea
about how things are. So doesn’t matter really. For example, they put the success
criteria, for example, but sometimes there are
10 ways how to meet it, so the techniques are different. So as long as you meet
that success criteria, it doesn’t matter what technique you use. They give a suggestion of a technique, but there’s always ways of doing things. It’s just about actually
experience about working. Sometimes it’s not
feasible to make a change according to WCAG because you are in a position in your business
where you can’t do this change, but there’s a way around
it to meet with WCAG, in the middle, yeah. – Okay, thank you. And then just aside, is there, somebody’s asking is
there any way to get W3C to revisit the requirements
in light of older eyes? That’s one of the questions
about colour contrast. The current status of the guidelines is that they are proposed. You were saying that the release is there. How would the average person
be able to interact the W3C? Is it possible to make
comments back into the process now before
they’re released in June? – I think it closes in March. I’m not quite sure, but probably there’s a
few days window there, but it’s through the GitHub
and through the GitHub page, I wish I can remember, and there are resources there. You find also the discussions about it and I think they do have
an email that you can contact if you want further clarification. But I don’t think the window’s
gonna be open for long, if it’s not closed already for that, yeah. – Well then I think it’s worth
pointing out that there are 10 years between 2.0 and
2.1 have mainly been spent with a lot of discussion
on a lot of forums about a lot of technical
details amongst a lot, a lot, a huge network of people. For those who aren’t aware
of where that comes from, that is a huge network, international network of specialist and techies and
accessibility UX-type people, but also the coders, a huge network of people who provide their time as volunteers to get the guidelines up to scratch. So it’s a nontrivial thing to try and influence (chuckles) that in any way, so maybe more realistic to
look to 2.2 rather than 2.1. A question here about using the guidelines from someone who does accessibility reviews as part of their work, but isn’t a accessibility specialist, is they use the guidelines
screen reader applications, the browser plugins, mainly X browser plugins and code reviews. Can you see any significant differences in the reviews that you’re gonna carry out given the new guidelines? Is there anything in
particular about mobile devices that you think you’re gonna change within our practise, within the testing, Aladdin? Is there something in
particular that this is throwing up already that
you’re gonna have to change? – I see. So I think the automated tools like aXe, for example, they would need to incorporate
some of the new changes. So for example I don’t think that those check the colour for buttons, for example, that would have to be done
manually at the moment. – Okay, cool. – Anyway, you shouldn’t be
relying on automated tools 100%. You should always grab the X value and then check it manually. It’s right, yeah, yeah. – But I think, I mean the question about mobile devices, it may well mean that if you’re not currently testing extensively on mobile, it might add to that, and also, therefore, it might need slightly
different ways of testing. But the switch to mobile, that it wasn’t being tested before, it’s just that some of the criteria are a bit clear, I think. A question about accessibility statements and where they should be
positioned on webpages. I don’t think that’s specified in WCAG, other than needing to
have particular components and I would also say that on our website, you will find, we did a webinar about, I can’t remember what we called it, something like the best
accessibility statement in the whole wide world
ever, or something like that, but there’s a whole set
of sort of top tips for putting in a good quality
accessibility statement. It’s somewhere on our website,
so have a look on there. There are some relatively
simple best-practice guidelines that you’ll pick up
just by looking online, but they’re not in WCAG in any detail. A couple more. Is it a requirement to
provide keyboard shortcuts? In other words, is it okay to not have keyboard
shortcuts on your website? – Yes, definitely, unless you have a very complex custom-made component where it acts
three or four functions at the same time and then
you wanna provide any, if you use the standard components, then you don’t have to. But sometimes, I’ve noticed some clients, they utilise these keyboard
shortcuts for navigating grid tables and things like that, but you don’t have to. – Okay, cool. So a couple of others. Somebody’s offered a
draft-spacing technique. We can share these in the
notes afterwards, Laura, thank you for that, and also that you pointed at the March 30th deadline for comments back to about this proposed release. Somebody said, if it helps, the W3C are very responsive on GitHub and they welcome interactions there. So that is intended as the place that you would provide feedback and if there’s anything that you’ve seen today that you still have questions about or
particularly you think the guidelines may have missed
something important, then that GitHub is the place
where they’re gathering that. I’m just gonna take a couple
more and then we’ll go stop. Has W3C considered mobility issues such as essential tremor? The physical tremors, is there stuff in there to
do with that impairment? – I suppose in this case, do they usually use voice recognition or are they usually unable
to move completely? – Well, I would guess, the thing with essential tremor, we’ve actually done a
webinar about that as well. I think it’s talking about
– Yeah, yeah. – People have difficulty
controlling a mouse or a keyboard. So as you say, there may be voice controllers
– Yes, yeah. – But also on a mobile, that’s gonna be quite different I think. – So, yes. There’s some of the gestures success criteria, it has to do with it there as well. For example like target size, it deals with that because the target is too small or if you just can’t coordinate the
movement of the muscles, usually that’s where it helps. So it does try to include this as well. – Right. Oh, could I, and I’ve got a couple of, one thing you mentioned
that I wasn’t quite sure about that fits into that
is the target-size thing moving from AA to AAA, I think you said. So does that mean–
– I think so. – It’s no longer a
success criteria for AA? You don’t need to have a
specific target size for AA now? – The thing is it’s
currently utilised by Apple, so it’s the standard
used by Apple, anyway. So it’s not something totally
foreign to developers. – Right, but it’s shifted from AA
to AAA means it’s no longer required within AA for the target size? – Yes. I remember I think I saw it under AA, but for some reason, maybe the enhanced one,
they remove that, yeah. – Okay. And definitely the final one, you mention accreditation
on the Barclays app. I’m assuming you meant R accreditation, AbilityNet accreditation when you mentioned–
– Yes, R. Yes, R accreditation. – That’s AA, isn’t it? That’s essentially we’ve
accredited it as AA-compliance and the reason I
mentioned that now is that a couple of times it’s popped up. The AA is largely considered
to be the legal standard. So in a number of pieces of
legislation around the world, in particular, in the
UK, the Equality Act, AA is considered to be the technical standard which we are using in compliance. – In the case of Barclays,
in the case of Barclays, they also incorporate user testing. So they also fix the issues that are
reported under user testing ’cause some things can be not detected by WCAG, so that’s why user
testing is important, so. – Right. But also to clarify that AA compliance, that’s the standard that
most people would expect for what you consider to
be legal or compliant. – Definitely. – Hence the testing and the
accreditation that we do uses that as the benchmark for that. Great. Well, thank you for joining us everybody. Thank you so much, Alladin, for working your way through the – Thank you. – Your frog in your throat. We’re gonna put up a final poll for our people who are here and then.

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